As already mentioned, KMDA's functional domains broadly extend over three areas, namely, (a) regulatory functions; (b) planning for development; and (c) project implementation, Besides these major functional areas, KMDA is also engaged in providing consultancy services and implementing projects on behalf of other public sector departments and agencies.
Under provisions of the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act 1979, KMDA has to prepare existing land Use Maps and Registers (LUMRs) for different zones within KMA to be able to prepare land Use and Development Control Plans for those sub areas, KMDA has to follow the process of preparation of LUMRs and LUDCPs as laid down in the Act itself, Adoption of the statutory planning documents is preceded by publication of the documents for public inspection, invitation of public objection, hearing of public objection and incorporation of the necessary modifications in these documents. The LUDCPs provide for regulatory measures, enforcement of which would lead to obtaining an environment-friendly, urban growth subject to protection and conservation of exhaustible natural resources and heritage. As the process of official adoption of LUDCPs usually takes a longer time, Development Control Regulation (DCRs) are often drafted and enforced to prevent unregulated and haphazard use and development of land, as an interim measure.
So far, KMDA has completed LUMRs and LUDCPs of more than 90% of the areas in KMA. The LUDCPs are also reviewed periodically to keep pace with the changing situation. DCRs are prepared for three township projects (in Kolkata West International City- KWIC, Kolkata Logistics Hub and Integrated IT Township and Auto Ancillary Park), which are being developed by private agencies, outside the city of Kolkata in the areas that are experiencing fast changes in land use.
In most cases, the responsibility of enforcement of LUDCPs are delegated to the units of local self-government. KMDA, however, retains the enforcement power to itself in selected areas/zones like 500 metres on either side of major expressways. KMDA has been empowered to regulate/control building operations through a single-window system in the township projects for which the DCRs has been prepared. ...
Planning for development
KMDA is engaged in carrying out different levels of planning exercise right from perspective plan to formulation of investment programme, KMDA keeps on updating the perspective plan and sectoral development plans to take into account the changing physical, social and other contexts. KMDA does these exercises at periodic intervals. Whereas the perspective plan sets out the broad goals and objectives and puts forward a 'vision' to be achieved over a longer period of time, the sectoral master or development plans set out the norms and standards of infrastructure, services, the projected requirement of such infrastructure and services, the strategies to be adopted for achieving the projected requirement and an indicative requirement of funds for the purpose. KMDA strives to ensure that the project-level interventions conform to the long-term plans. When the KMDA came into existence in 1970, the situation called for desperate measures to arrest the further decline of the city. In 1972, based on the shelf of projects recommended in Master Plans of 1966 following the Basic Development Plan, the International Development Association (IDA) developed the first Calcutta Urban Development Project (CUDP-I). CUDP-I was followed by CUDP-II (1977-83) and CUDP-III (1983-88). While the first series of CUDP was meant for development of urban infrastructure mostly at the city core, the later series of projects gradually focussed on development projects for EWS and new areas for future urban growth. Within 15 years of the publication of the Basic Development Plan (1966-1986), the bi-polar urban model of KMA conceived in BDP was found unrealistic as the urban growth started occurring around multiple centres giving rise to the idea of multiple growth-centres. Hence, KMDA prepared multiple planning documents prescribing gradually more decentralized and balanced metropolitan growth. Some of them are ‘Development Perspective Plan: 1971-2001’, ‘Preferred Structure Plan: 1981-2001’, ‘A Perspective Plan for Calcutta: 2011’, Plan for Metropolitan Development: 1990-2015’. Most recently in 2005, KMPC has published the Perspective Plan of KMA: 2001-2025 (VISION 2025). Publication of Vision 2025 was followed by preparation of 3 Master Plans [(i) Master Plan for Traffic and Transportation, (ii) Master Plan for Water Supply, (iii) Master Plan for Drainage, Sewerage and Sanitation) and 2 Development Plans [(i) for Environment, Wetland, Urban Amenities and Heritage and (ii) for Education, Health, Bustee (Slum) and Employment].
KMDA also formulates short-term action plans based on inter-se priorities between different sectors of infrastructure, between zones of KMA and between economic groups of beneficiaries. Based on short term action plans, KMDA undertakes preparation of project reports towards execution of the same by adopting a competitive tendering process. A large number of projects have so far been executed by KMDA covering different sectors of infrastructure, such as, water supply, sewerage and drainage, traffic and transportation, township and area development, housing and slum improvement, commercial complexes, parks and playground and so on and so forth. It should be very pertinent to note that in design of interventions, the urban poor have always received priority attention. KMDA's interventions have not confined to development of physical infrastructure alone and have extended to cover the fields of health and community development especially of the urban poor. Notwithstanding the mandates laid down in the WBT&CP Act and WBMPC Act, KMDA willy-nilly has to operate and maintain some infrastructure facilities, especially those trans-municipal in nature.
In June 2007, VISION 2025 and the Master Plans helped in formulating the City Development Plan (CDP) for Kolkata Metropolitan Area for Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM). The CDP was comprised of recommendations of several trans-municipal development schemes. It contained a short-term action plan that lists out the priority projects that need to be implemented in the next 5 years, within the overall development framework recommended for each infrastructure sector. The total investment had worked out to Rs.6939 crore. In August 2008, following the Master Plan for Traffic and Transportation in KMA of 2006, KMDA prepared ‘Comprehensive Mobility Plan’ (CMP) with the help of two private agencies. The CMP envisages the KMA as a unified city with well-defined integrated multi-modal transportation system catering to all cross-sections of the society. KMDA had been designated as the nodal agency for implementation of the Government of India sponsored Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) for Kolkata and Asansol urban areas. KMDA would also function as one of the executing agencies for JnNURM projects in KMA. KMDA has been approached by different government department/agencies for planning, designing and implementing certain projects that require specialized skills. This has happened because of the credibility that KMDA has achieved over the long years of its existence. KMDA is provided with the funds for implementing the projects on turnkey basis and is allowed to retain service charges at mutually acceptable rates. In KMDA parlance, these are called 'deposit works'.
JnNURM had been one of the major programmatic interventions that KMDA was engaged as both the Nodal and the Implementing Agency. 40 projects in KMA under the Urban Infrastructures & Governance (UIG), Sub-Mission I of JnNURM worth of Rs 4080.08 crore have already been completed. 22 ongoing projects worth of Rs 2655.02 crore have been taken up. Some of the major projects include flyover from Parama to Park Circus, Construction of elevated road between Jinjira Bazar and Batanagar on Budge Budge Trunk Road, Four Lane Flyover from Ramnagar More (Garden Reach) to Remount Road (near Kantapukur Morgue) in Kolkata, BRTS from Ultadanga to Garia in Kolkata Metropolitan Area, 24x7 Water Supply Scheme for Panihati Municipality, Trans-municipal Water Supply Project for Municipal Towns of Madhyamgram, New Barrackpore and Barasat, Storm Water Drainage System for South Dum Dum, Baruipur and Rishra Municipality, Four Lane Flyover at Kamalgazi Intersection on EM Bypass Connector. 16 UIG projects worth Rs 1486.90 crore are likely to be completed by March 2017. Another 5 projects namely Construction of Interchange at Dunlop junction at Kolkata, Barrackpore-Kalyani-Dum Dum Expressway Road Project within KMA, Construction of Elevated Road between Jinjira Bazar and Batanagar on Budge Budge Trunk Road, Four Lane Flyover from Ramnagar More (Garden Reach) to Remount Road (near Katapukur Morgue) in Kolkata and Flyover from Parama to Park Circus are likely to be completed by March 2018. Under the Basic Services for Urban Poor (BSUP) Sub Mission II of JnNURM in KMA, 97,120 dwelling units have been completed for slum dwellers, 5024 dwelling units are under construction.
Besides in NURM, GAP Sector has been constructing Municipal Waste Water projects under NGRBA at Kalyani and Bhatpara Municipalities at cost of Rs 332 crore and Rs 121 crore respectively. Two new MWW projects under NGRBA with World Bank Financial Assistance worth Rs 274.76 crore & 145.98 crore, respectively at Halisahar and Budge Budge Municipal towns have been sanctioned and will be implemented shortly.
This apart, one joint venture PPP Project development of tourism will be coming up by installing a Ferris Wheel including other tourist amenities in the Millennium Park in Kolkata on the bank of the River Hooghly with investment of Rs 300 crore. River Front Development project for different Municipal Town will be coming up soon under Namami Gange for Ganga Rejuvenation. The Work of Garden Reach Flyover is under process. "Sewerage Scheme and STP" at Halisahar Town under the Infrastructure Investment component of the World Bank assisted National Ganga river Basin Project has started and is scheduled to be completed by April 2016. The integrated sewage treatment system work consisting of sewerage system treatment Municipal waste collection, in both Bhatpara and Kalyani have been taken up and work is expected to be completed by April 2016. KMDA is responsible for planned development of the entire KMA. To accommodate the future activities of Kolkata Metropolis Township, projects are also underway at Baruipur, Debanandapur and extended part of East Kolkata. Thus KMDA strives to achieve development in Kolkata Metropolitan Area for the benefits of all sections of society.